More than 125 years ago, the first Judiciary Act was passed by the first Congress. The first president—George Washington—signed it the same day. The Judiciary Act of 1789, 1 Stat. 73 (Sept. 24, 1789) establishes district and circuit courts and authorizes the staffing of the Supreme Court with five associate justices along with the Chief Justice.
Justices and judges were directed to take the following oath:
I, A. B., do solemnly swear or affirm, that I will administer justice without respect to persons, and do equal right to the poor and to the rich, and that I will faithfully and impartially discharge and perform all the duties incumbent on me as, according to the best of my abilities and understanding, agreeably to the constitution, and laws of the United States. So help me God.